Who is the father of geography?

father of geography hecataeus or eratosthenes

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The ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes is called the ‘Father of Geography’. He was the first to use the term geography and had a small notion of a planet that helped him determine the circumference of the Earth.

Father of Geography

Physical geography is the study of the various patterns of the planet Earth, it’s surface and its lithosphere (land and its features), hydrosphere (earth’s water surface and its characteristics), and biosphere (land and water living organisms). ), and the atmosphere (the gaseous blanket that surrounds Earth). Eratosthenes was the first known geographer who did a few things:

About Eratosthenes:

  • Eratosthenes was multi-talented. He was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
  • He calculated the circumference of the earth without leaving Egypt
  • In his three-volume work Geography, he described and mapped his entire world, without dividing the Earth into five climatic zones, which are given below:
  • Two freezing point zones around the poles, two temperate zones, and a zone that surrounds the equator and the tropics
  • He was a man of learning and exploring, as well as became the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria.
    He invented the discipline of geography, which includes the terminology used today.

Also read: Who is known as the iron man of India?

Father of Geography in India

James Rennell is considered the father of Indian geography. He was a marine survey and hydrographic specialist. Rennell made the first accurate map of the Indian subcontinent in 1783 with geographic data provided by the British Army. This was known as the map of Hindustan or the Mughal Empire.

His work is also pioneering in the study of ocean currents and winds. His contribution to oceanography has earned him the title of ‘Father of Oceanography’. He was the first Surveyor-General of Bengal.

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