Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of letters with a pen, ink brush, or other writing instruments. 17 A contemporary calligraphy practice can be defined as “the art of forming signs in an expressive, harmonious and efficient manner”.
Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where letters may or may not be readable.
Calligraphy continues to evolve in the form of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-written logo designs, religious art, announcements, graphic design and commissioned calligraphy art, cut stone inscriptions, and commemorative documents. It is also used for props and moving images for film and television, and for testimonials, birth and death certificates, maps, and other written works.
The major tools for a calligrapher are pen and brush. Calligraphy pen writes with nibs that can be flat, round, or
pointed. For some decorative purposes, pen-steel brushes with multiple nibs—may be used. However, creations have also been created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. There are some styles of calligraphy, such as Gothic script, that require a stubby nib pen.
Writing ink is usually water-based and much less viscous than oil-based inks used in printing. Certain special papers with high ink absorption and consistent texture enable cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is often used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and allow lines to be drawn through. A light-box is not required to be allowed to pass through. Generally, lightboxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings distracting you from the work. Ruled paper, either for a lightbox or for direct use, is often ruled every quarter or half an inch, although inch spaces are sometimes used. Such is the case with the Literia Uncials (hence the name), and the college-governed paper often serves as a guideline.
Common calligraphy pens and brushes are:
- Dip pen
- Ink brush
- Fountain pen
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